Tuesday, June 30, 2009

Ano ang Tayutay at mga sangkapin nito

Ang tayutay ay salita o isang pahayag na ginagamit upang bigyan diin ang isang kaisipan o damdamin. Sinasadya ng pagpapayahag na gumagamit ng talinghaga o di-karaniwang salita o paraan ng pagpapahayag upang bigyan diin ang kanyang saloobin.

Mga uri ng tayutay
Simili o Pagtutulad - di tiyak na paghahambing ng dalawang magkaibang bagay. Ginagamitan ito ng mga salitang: tulad ng, paris ng, kawangis ng, tila, sing-, sim-, magkasing-, magkasim-, at iba pa. Ito ay tinatawag na Simile sa Ingles.
Metapora o Pagwawangis - tiyak na paghahambing ngunit hindi na ginagamitan ng pangatnig.Nagpapahayag ito ng paghahambing na nakalapat sa mga pangalan, gawain, tawag o katangian ng bagay na inihahambing. Ito ay tinatawag na METAPHOR sa Ingles.
Personipikasyon o Pagtatao - Ginagamit ito upang bigyang-buhay, pagtaglayin ng mga katangiang pantao - talino, gawi, kilos ang mga bagay na walang buhay sa pamamagitan ng mga pananalitang nagsasaad ng kilos tulad ng pandiwa, pandiwari, at pangngalang-diwa. 'PERSONIFICATION' sa Ingles.
Apostrope o Pagtawag - isang panawagan o pakiusap sa isang bagay na tila ito ay isang tao.
Aliterasyon - Ang unang titik o unang pantig ay pare-pareho.
Anapora - Pag-uulit ng isang salitang nasa unahan ng isang pahayag o ng isang sugnay.
Anadiplosis - Paggamit ng salita sa unahan at sa hulihan ng pahayag o sugnay.
Epipora - Pag-uulit naman ito ng isang salita sa hulihan ng sunud-sunod na taludtod.
Empanodos o Pabalik na Pag-uulit - Pag-uulit nang pagbaliktad ng mga pahayag.
Katapora - Paggamit ng isang salita na kadalasang panghalip na tumutukoy sa isang salita o parirala na binanggit sa hulihan.
Pagmamalabis o Hayperbole - Ito ay lagpalagpasang pagpapasidhi ng kalabisan o kakulangan ng isang tao, bagay, pangyayari, kaisipan, damdamin at iba pang katangian, kalagayan o katayuan.
Panghihimig o Onomatopeya - ito ang paggamit ng mga salitang kung ano ang tunog ay siyang kahulugan. ONOMATOPOEIA sa Ingles.
Pag-uyam - Isang uri ng ironya na ipinapahiwatig ang nais iparating sa huli. Madalas itong nakakasakit ng damdamin.
Senekdoke o Pagpapalit-saklaw - isang bagay, konsepto kaisipan, isang bahagi ng kabuuan ang binabanggit.
Paglilipat-wika - tulad ng pagbibigay-katauhan na pinasasabagay ang mga katangiang pantao, na ginagamit ang pang-uri.
Balintuna - isang uri ng ironya na hindi ipinapahiwatig ang nais sabihin sa huli.
Pasukdol - pataas na paghahanay ng mga salita o kaisipan ayon sa kahalagahan nito mula sa pinakamababa patungo sa pinakamataas na antas.
Pagtanggi o Litotes - gumagamit ng katagang "hindi" na nagbabadya ng pagsalungat o di-pagsang-ayon. Ito'y may himig na pagkukunwari, isang kabaligtaran ng ibig sabihin.

Monday, June 29, 2009

What makes a Good Teacher?

*A good teacher is someone who teaches not only with mind, but also with heart.

*I think that a good teacher should be a good and complete person: curious, passionate,  
  interested about their pupils' interests, wishes, feelings... A really good teacher should 
  be child in his soul which mean, creative, imaginative and ready for exploration.

*A good teacher makes herself available to all students, however, knows which students need extra assistance.

*A good teacher is an effective communicator, however, who knows when she needs to change her communicating techniques to be sure students can grasp instructional concepts. 

*A good teacher allows students to ask questions, however, does not answer questions without drawing from other students' learning experience first.

*A good teacher has classroom rules and procedures which help students know what is expected from them and how the students can help themselves.

*A good teacher encourages cooperation and sets an example with other students and faculty.

*A good teacher is flexible and able to change lessons "spur of the moment" in order to accommodate the needs of her students.

*A good teacher respects all students and encourages good performance.

Introduction to World Literature

DONE by : MR NELSON TENORIO (professor)


-Highest expression done in an extra-ordinary way  
-Anything that has beauty and creativity
-Has style
-Has life

*Natural Arts
         Anything made by God
        Possesses natural beauty
*Artificial Arts
        Anything done by man

*Division of Artificial Arts
*Painting- Combination of Brush 
  Strokes and Hues
*Architecture- Deals with geometric 
  designs and figures
*Sculpture- The use of chisel in carving
*Music- The right combination of lyrics, 
  tone and rhythm

*Literature- Comes from the latin word
  LITERA which means letter
  - Mirror of ones culture
  - Collection of Significant Human Experience using words highly interwoven

Possesses positive values

*Oral Form
*Written Form

*Prose- Written in sentences and
                  paragraph form
*Poetry- Written in verses and stanza form

1. Prose drama- a drama in a prose form. It consists entirely of dialogues in prose, and is meant                                 to be acted on stage.
2. Essay- A short literary composition which is expository in nature.
3. Prose fiction- (something invented, imagined or feigned to be true)
4. Biography and autobiography
5. letter- a written message which displays aspects of an author’s physiological make-up not                         immediately apparent in his more public writings.
6. Diary- a daily written record of account of the writer’s own experience
8. Book review- an article dealing with the contents, literary worth, etc. of a book.
9. Philosophy- deals with the processes governing thoughts and conducts.
10. Anecdote- a brief narrative concerning a particular individual or incident.
11. Parable- a short tale that illustrates principle.
12.Pamphlet- a small book of topic of current 
13. Eulogy- writing in praise of a dead person,  
                         event or thing.
14. Speech- words delivered to an audience
15. Lecture- a carefully prepared speech intended to  
                       inform or instruct the audience.

a. Novel- a long fictitious narrative with a complicated plot. It may have a main plot and one or more sub plots that develop with the main plot.

b. Short story- a fictitious narrative compressed into one unit of time, place and action

Point of View
Moral values/lesson

Saturday, June 27, 2009

Summary of Dr. Jose Rizal's the indolence of the Filipinos?


SUMMARY: Rizal admits that indolence does exist among the Filipinos, but it cannot be attributed to the troubles and backwardness of the country; rather it is the effect of the backwardness and troubles experienced by the country. Past writings on indolence revolve only on either denying or affirming, and never studying its causes in depth. One must study the causes of indolence, Rizal says, before curing it. He therefore enumerates the causes of indolence and elaborates on the circumstances that have led to it. The hot climate, he points out, is a reasonable predisposition for indolence. Filipinos cannot be compared to Europeans, who live in cold countries and who must exert much more effort at work. An hour ' s work under the Philippine sun, he says, is equivalent to a day ' s work in temperate regions. 


SUMMARY: Rizal says that an illness will worsen if the wrong treatment is given. The same applies to indolence. People, however, should not lose hope in fighting indolence. Even before the Spaniards arrived, Rizal argues, the early Filipinos were already carrying out trade within provinces and with other neighboring countries; they were also engaged in agriculture and mining; some natives even spoke Spanish. All this disproves the notion that Filipinos are by nature indolent. Rizal ends by asking what then would have caused Filipinos to forget their past. 


SUMMARY: Rizal enumerates several reasons that may have caused the Filipinos ' cultural and economic decadence. The frequent wars, insurrections, and invasions have brought disorder to the communities. Chaos has been widespread, and destruction rampant. Many Filipinos have also been sent abroad to fight wars for Spain or for expeditions. As a result, the population has decreased in number. As forced labor, many men have been sent to shipyards to construct vessels. Meanwhile, natives who have had enough of abuse have gone to the mountains. As a result, the farms have been neglected. The so-called indolence of Filipinos definitely has deeply rooted causes. 


SUMMARY: Filipinos, according to Rizal, are not responsible for their misfortunes, as they are not their own masters. The Spanish government has not encouraged labor and trade, which ceased after the government treated the country ' s neighboring trade partners with great suspicion. Trade has declined, furthermore, because of pirate attacks and the many restrictions imposed by the government, which gives no aid for crops and farmers. This and the abuse suffered under encomenderos have caused many to abandon the fields. Businesses are monopolized by many government officials, red tape and bribery operate on a wide scale, rampant gambling is tolerated by the government. This situation is compounded by the Church ' s wrong doctrine which holds that the rich will not go to heaven, thus engendering a wrong attitude toward work. There has also been discrimination in education against natives. These are some of the main reasons that Rizal cites as causing the deterioration of values among the Filipinos. 


SUMMARY: According to Rizal, all the causes of indolence can be reduced to two factors. The first factor is the limited training and education Filipino natives receive. Segregated from Spaniards, Filipinos do not receive the same opportunities that are available to the foreigners. They are taught to be inferior. The second factor is the lack of a national sentiment of unity among them. Because Filipinos think they are inferior, they submit to the foreign culture and do everything to imitate it. The solution, according to Rizal, would be education and liberty.

Thursday, June 25, 2009

Beowulf Characters:

Beowulf Characters 

Schyld Scefing: He is the first great king of the Danes, and upon his death he is given a remarkable burial at sea. He eventually becomes the great-grandfather of Hrothgar who is king during Grendel's attacks upon the Danes. 

Beowulf: A thane of the Geat king Hygelac and eventually becomes King of the Geats. 

Hrothgar: King of the Danes at the time of Grendel's constant attacks. During is reign as king he builds the hall (Heorot) as a tribute to his people and his peaceful reign. 

Heorot: The great hall that Hrothgar builds in celebration of his reign. 

Grendel: A descendant of Cain and a man/monster, Grendel attacks Heorot after Beowulf's arrival. Beowulf eventually kills him, with his severed arm hung as a trophy in Heorot. 

Wulfgar: A loyal thans of Hrothgar, Wiglaf is a watchman for the Danes and the first to greet Beowulf and his men to the land of the Danes. He also deems the Geat visitors as people worthy enough to meet with Hrothgar. 

Ecgtheow: He is Beowulf's father. He is a Waegmunding by birth and a Geat by marriage. When he was younger. 

Unferth: Unferth's name means "discord". He is a thane of Hrothgar's who taunts Beowulf in the hall about his swimming contest with Breca. However, Beowulf shames him in the boasting match. 

Wealhtheow: She is Hrothgar's queen and the mother of his two sons. Her name comes from the Anglo-Saxon words for "treasure bearer." She actually has the duty of presenting necklaces and mead-cups at court. 

Sigemund: Known as a famous dragon slayer, he is an ancient Germanic hero whose story is recounted after the fight with Grendel. 

Heremond: An ancient Danish king who fell from grace and became ruthlessly evil king. He is used by Hrothgar as a bad example of bad kingship for Beowulf. 

Hildeburh: She is an ancient Danish princess who was married into the Frisian royalty. Her story is recounted during the second feast for Beowulf at Heorot. Her brother and her son were both killed in a war with the Frisians at Finnesburh. 

Hrothulf: Hrothulf is Hrothgar's younger brother. Wealhtheow calls upon him to protect her young sons if it necessary to do so. 

Grendel's Mother: The of the man/monster Grendel she comes to Heorot seeking vengeance for the death of her son, and is killed by Beowulf. 

Aeschere: He is one of Hrothgar's important officials and trusted thanes. Grendel's mother kills him, and Hrothgar is inconsolable. 

Hrunting: Unferth gives this sword to Beowulf to use in killing Grendel's mother. It is unable to cut her; therefore, Beowulf discards it. Later he returns it to Unferth with his thanks. 

Hygela:c This King of the Geats is also Beowulf's uncle. Upon hearing Beowulf's courageous exploits, he gives Beowulf nearly half his kingdom. 

Freawaru: She is the daughter of Hrothgar who is unmentioned until Beowulf tells Hygelac about her. Beowulf believes that her marriage to a Heathobard prince will do more harm than good for the Danes. 

The Dragon: This is the third and last monster that Beowulf must defeat. After a Geat slave steals from his treasure, he goes on a rampage. Beowulf defeats him, but not before the dragon mortally wounds him. 

Naegling: Beowulf won this sword in a fight between the Geats and the Frisians. He uses it in the battle with the dragon. 

Wiglaf: This is Beowulf's kinsman through Ecgtheow's family, the Waegmundings. He is the only thane of Beowulf's that stays with him during the battle with the dragon. 

Beow (Beowulf): He is the son of Scyld Shefing. He is often confused with the hero of the poem. 

Beowulf Slays the Dragon 

The Fire Worm Falls

Beowulf Essay,

Beowulf is a great epic adventure intermingled with Christanity and Celtic culture. As the adventure starts Grendel the dragon has been terrorizing Herot and killing Hrothgars men. Grendel is a huge dragon who eats men and terrorizes Hrothgars mead-hall. Grendel is symbolic to the Devil, who destroys peace and takes the lives of humans. Grendel has been killing Hrothgars men and tormenting Herot for twelve years. 

Beowulf hears of Grendel and the terrible distruction he has caused and decides to journey to Herot and free the land of Grendel. Beowulf is a symbol of Jesus Christ who came into this world to clean the world of sin and save us from eternal hell. Beowulf is portraying a savior coming to save the land from evil. Beowulf is a great warrior who has won many battles and believes in fate, which has kept him alive in his many battles. 

One night as Grendel approached the mead-hall Beowulf and his men wait for grendel to attach. As Grendel starts to attach he grabs one of Beowulf men and eats him. 

This part of the story signifies Satan attacking humans and tearing and tormenting their life. After Grendel eats the man. Beowulf attacks him and grabs Grendel claws and holds him. Grendel trys to fight but to no avail. He panics and fights but he begins to feel that Beowulf is stronger and will kill him. Beowulf rips one of Grendel arms off and Grendel starts to run back to his lair. This fight with Beowulf and Grendel signifies Chirst coming to earth and saving us from eternal death. Like Beowulf who saved the people from the wrath of Grendel. 

After Beowulf has defeated Grendel he is blessed by Hrothgar and travels back to his homeland and lives there for a long time. A long time passes by and then Beowulf hears about the dragon and decides to go rid the land of the terrible dragon. 

Beowulf picks his finest warriors and prepares to fight the dragon. Beowulf and his men travel to the cliffs where the worm lives. Beowulf tell his men to let him go alone to defeat the dragon. When Beowulf enters the den he feels the hot poisonous breath of the worm. As the Dragon attacks it breaths hot fire on Beowulf and starts to melt his shield. As Beowulf starts to fight he trys to use his sword, his first swing with Hrunthing breaks it and barely cut the dragon. By this time Beowulf is fatiality wounded and is losing the battle, so Wiglaf the most faithful follower Beowulf has decides he has to save his king. Wiglaf helps Beowulf defeat the worn and after they have killed it Wiglaf carries Beowulf out of the den and lays him down. This part of the story symbolizes Armagedon and the all the wrath.

Wednesday, June 24, 2009

Saan pa po pwdng bumili ng DOGTAG ng AKOMISMO?

>>>>>>>wala lng,,haha trip ko lng bumili ng DOGTAG ng AKOMISMO saang mall po ba pwdng bumili nun?

i know nmn sa concerts na prepared ng AKOMISMO team e syempre malayo to jion with them..

so un para nyo ng awa,,haha 

if kilala nyo ko,,ibili nyo ko den babayaran ko na lng,,

ayoko nung peke halatang halata,,meron d2 malapit samin kaso 22 pesos,,tae e ke pangit kaya!

salamat in advance...comment kau for any info!

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

Updated list of schools with positive cases of AH1N1

De La Salle University and its sister school St. Benilde College, both in Taft Avenue,Manila; 

FEU-East Asia in Manila; 

St. Andrew High School in Parañaque, 

Ateneo High School in Quezon City; 

Hilera Elementary School in Barangay Hilera in Jaen, Nueva Ecija;

Candelaria Meneses Duque High School in Barangay Bambang in Bulacan, Bulacan; 

Our Lady of Perpetual Succor College in Marikina City;

Lagro Elementary School in Quezon City; 

Mapua Institute of Makati City; 

Philippines Science High School in Palo, Leyte 

Miriam College in Quezon City; 

Don Alejandro Roces Sr. Science and Technology High School in Quezon City

St. Paul’s College in Pasig City;

Lourdes School in Mandaluyong City; 

University of the Philippines-Diliman, 

Dominican College in San Juan

San Beda College in Mendiola 

Sta. Rosa Central Elementary School in Laguna.

University of Santo Tomas  in Sampaloc, Manila

Saint Paul College in Makati (pre-school to high school)

Saint Scholastica's College in Manila

La Salle Greenhills in San Juan

Paref Southridge School in Muntinlupa

Don Bosco Techinical Institute in Mandaluyong

Adamson University in San Marcelino Street, Ermita, Manila.

Manila Central University in Caloocan

University of Cebu - Lapu Lapu/Mandaue campus

Karangalan Elementary school-Cainta Rizal

Claret School in U.P. Village, Diliman, Quezon City 



Ayon kay Sebastian(2007), ito ay isang mahalagang kaalaman ng pagpapahayag na kung saan ay tinukoy kung maganda o kaakit-akit ang pagsususlat at pagsasalita. Maaari rin itong tawagin bilang pagaaral o kahusayan ng isang indibidwal sapagpili ng mga salitang gagamitin sa pagsulat o pagsasalita.

* Galing sa salitang "rhetor" (Salitang Griyego) na nangangahulugang "guro" o mahusay na oradr/mananalumpati
* Susi sa mabisang pagpapahayag na nauukol sa kaakit-akit, kaiga-igaya at epektibong pagsasalita o pagsulat.

* Pag-aaral kung paano makabubuo ng isang kaisipan sa pamamagitan ng mga piling salita at wastong ayaw-ayaw ng mga ito upang maiangkop sa target ng awdyens at matamo ng manunulat ang kanyang layunin.

*Ang kasanayang ito ay natututunan o napagaaralan

Ang isang taong may kahusayan sa retorika ay kadalasan nagkakaroon ng isang magandang impresyon sa kaniyang mga audience o tagapakinig. Halimbawa na lamang ay ang paborito mong awtor ng libro tagapagbalita sa telebisyon. May kasanayan sila na kung saan sila ay ating hinahangaan at maging tinatangkilik ng mga tagapanood.Samakatuwid, ang layunin ng retorika ay maging kaakit akit at epektibo ang isang pahayag.


Bilang isang sining


Tulad ng awit ang retorika ay may roon ding sining o ibat ibang paraan o estilo na nalinawan sa ating isipan, damadamin at mambabasa.


  Isang Kooperativong sining

Hindi maaring gawin ng nagiisa. Sa pamamagitan nito nagbubuklod ang isang tagapagsalita at tagapakinig sa iisan ideya.

  Isang pantaong sining

Dahil sa ang wika ay midyum ng retorika, paslita man o pasulat. Dahil dito, ito ay pagaari ng tao ang retorika ay isa ring siniong at pantao.


  Isang Temporal na sining

Ito ay nababatay sa panahon.Ang gumagamit nito ay nangungusap sa lenggwhae ngayon at hindi bukas o kahapon.


  Isang limitadong sining

Marami ang hindi ito kayang gawin. Ang retorika ay mayroong sukdulan o hangganan. Dahil maaring imahinasyon lamang ang gamitin sa sining na ito.


  Isang may kabiguang sining

Hindi lahat ay may kagalingan sa paghawak ng wika. Ito ay likas na komplikado dahil sa mga tuntunin na pababago bago. Sa iba ito ay nagiging frustrating na karanasan.


  Isang nagsusupling na sining

Ito ay dumadami. Ang isang manunulat ay nagsusulat ng isang ideya sa isipan at nagsusupling ng isang akda. At patuloy tuloy na napapasa ang kaalaman sa kaniyang kaisipan.


  Saklaw ng retorika




iba pang larangan




  Nagbibigay daan sa komunikasyon

Ano man an gating naiisip, nadarama ay maari nating ipahayag sa pasalita o pasulat na mauunawan ng ibang tao.


Dahil sa ating pakikining o pagbabasa ng mga akda tayo ay nadidistrak at nadadala sa ibang dimesyon na kung saan nakakalimutan natin ang tunay na suliranin ng ating buhay.

Nagpapalawak ng pananaw

Sa ating pakikinig o pagbasa maaaring may natututunan tayong bagong kaalaman na mahalaga. Gaya ng nabanggit, ang retorika ay nagsusupling dahilan upang lumawak ang pananaw natin

Nagbibigay ngalan,

Ang mga bagay sa paligid natin ay dumating ng walang leybel. Dahil sa retorika, halimbawa, ang kamera ay nagging Kodak, ang toothpaste ay nagging colgate.


Dahil sa retorika, napakaraming tao ang nagiging prominente at makapangyarihan. Isa sa mga mahuhusay na na pulitiko o mananumpalati. Si Ninoy Aquino ay isang mahusay na peryodista noong Ikalawang pandigmaang pandaigdig. Ang matatalinong ideya, malalalim na pananampalataya at idyolohiya na naipahayag sa pamamagitan ng retorika ay pinagmulan din ng kapangyarihan at kalakasan.

retorika,balarila,at kung ano ano!


--ay isang masistemang balangkas ng sinasalitang tunog na pinili at isinasaayos sa paraang arbitraryo upang magamit sa kominukasyon ng mga taong nabibilang sa isang kultura.—Henry Gleason



1. Masistemang balangkas

Ponolohiya/ ponema—ang nagtuturo sa atin kung anong tunog ang makabuluhan sa isang salita at kung paano binago ng pagbigkas ang kahulugan ng isang salita

Morpolohiya/ morpema—ito ang tumatalakay sa pagbuo ng salita

Sintaksis—tamang ugnayan ng mga salita sa loob ng pangungusap

Semantika—pag-aaral ng kahulugan ng mga salita

Diskurso—pagpapalitan ng pahayag sa pagitan ng dalawang tao

2. Sinasalitang tunog

*hindi lahat ng tunog ay maaaring tawaging wika, dapat ito ay nagbibigay ng kahulugan; maituturing lamang ito na wika kung ito ay may kaisipan

3. Pinipili at isinasaayos sa paraang arbitraryo

4. Nabibilang sa isang kultura

5. Ginagamit sa komunikasyon

6. Dinamiko

Dinamiko—wika ay nagbabago sa paglipas ng panahon

Language Variation—pagbabago ng wika mula sa isang wika mula sa isang wika

Language Change—etimolohiya/kasaysayan ng isang salita



--nagmula sa salitang Griyego na “rhetor”, isang guro at mananalumpati o tagapagsalita sa isang pagpupulong

--isang pag-aaral sa masining na paggamit ng lenggwahe upang maimpluwensyahan ang damdamin at kaisipan ng ibang tao.


**Ito’y isang bahagi o sangay ng diskurso na nauukol sa panghihimok o persweysyon—ARISTOTLE

**Ito’y ang paggamit ng mga simbolo na may kakayahang pumukaw sa ating kalikasan na tumugon sa mensaheng ipinahahatid ng mga naturang simbolo—KENNETH BUKE

**Ito’y isang siyensa o agham ng persweysyon—SOCRATES

**Ang sining ng argumento ng pagsulat—RICHAD WHATTLEY

**Ito ay sining ng mabisang pagpili ng wika pagkat may iba’t ibang pamilian o alternatibo—DR. VENANCIO L. MENDIOLA


Persweysyon—kakayahan ng isang tao na makaimpluwensya sa kanyang kapwa


Tatlong Uri ng Persweysyon Ayon kay Aristotle

1. Talumpating Panghukuman/ Forensic o Judicial—naglalayong patunayan ang pagiging matuwid o di matuwid na ibinunga ng mga nakaraang pagkilos ng mga tao

2. Pampubliko/ Deliberative—naglalayong pakilusin ang madla o hadlangan ang napipintong pagkilos ng tao

3. Ayon sa Okasyon/ Epideictic—ang talumpating binibigkas depende sa okasyon tulad ng sa mga lamay, dedikasyon, atbp.


Tatlong Paraan ng Persweysyon

1. Logos—paggamit ng pangangatwirang umaapela sa isipan

2. Pathos—paggamit ng pangangatwirang umaapela sa emosyon

3. Ethos—ito ay tumutukoy sa karakter o raport na taglay ng isang mananalumpati



1. Imbensyon—tumutukoy sa malinaw na proseso ng paghahanap ng mga argumento na magagamit para sa isang talumpati na maaaring sa paraang induktibo o deduktibo

Induktibo—pagbuo ng pangkalahatang kongklusyon mula sa partikular na linya ng pangangatwiran

Deduktibo—tumutukoy sa pangangatwiran sa pamamagitan ng paggamit ng mga analohiya o mga impormal na anekdota

2. Pagsasaayos—proseso ng pag-oorganisa sa talumpati gayundin sa pagsasaayos o pagbabalangkas ng bahagi ng isang talumpati ayon sa ss:
Introduksyon o panimula
Narasyon/paglalahad ng mahahalagang punto
Paghahain ng mga patunay sa kasong tinalakay

3. Istilo—proseso ng masining na pagsasatitik ng mga nadiskubre o naihanay na kaisipan o ebidensya.

4. Memorya—tumutukoy sa bahagi ng isinasaulo ang isang talumpati o mga mahahalagang punto ng isang talumpati upang maging maayos ang pagbigkas nito sa harap ng publiko

5. Deliberasyon—tumutukoy sa aktwal na deliberasyon o pagbigkas kung saan kinokontrol ang modyulasyon ng tinig gayundin ang paglalapat ng mga angkop na kumpas sa isang talumpati


BALARILA (grammar)

--bala ng dila—LOPE K. SANTOS

--tumutukoy o may kaugnayan sa pag-aaral ng anyo at uri ng mga salita; tamang gamit ng mga salita at tamang kaugnayan ng mga salita sa isang pahayag upang makabuo ng malinaw na kaisipan o diwa.



--inaaral ang kayarian ng isang salita

--pag-aayos-ayos ng mga salita sa loob ng isang pangungusap/ sintaksis

--tamang paggamit ng salita upang mabuo ang pangungusap


Linguistic Competence—kabihasaan sa paggamit ng salita


Paggamit ng mga retorikal na kagamitan o transisyunal na pananalita:



--pagpapahayag ng mga saloobin at kaisipan na di-tuwiran; ang kahulugan ay nasa pagitan ng salitang ginagamit.


  Naglalako ng asin—nagyayabang

  Makati ang dila—tsismosa


--nasa anyong patula, may sukat at tugma at talinghaga kaya’t kaiga-igayang pakinggan

--naglalaman ng mga paalala at pilosopiya sa buhay


  Pag may itinanim, may aanihin

  Kung ano ang puno, siya ring bunga


--ito’y gumagamit ng mga talinghaga at himig panunudyo; may payak na kahulugan

--nasasalamin dito ang kilos at gawi ng isang tao


  Utos sa pusa, utos sa daga

  Malakas ang loob, mahina ang tuhod


--nagsisilbing tagapagpaalala rin ang mga kawikaan sa mga dapat ugaliin at maging asal ng mga kabataan

--may sukat, tugma at kariktan din

Hal. Ang magagawa ngayon, huwag nang ipagpabukas

  Walang halaga ang yaman, sa araw ng kamatayan


--sa paggamit nito,nagkakaroon ng kasiningan at kabisaan ang isang pahayag na karaniwang makaaakit sa sinumang nakikinig

--paglayo sa karaniwang paggamit ng mga salita

Iba’t Ibang Uri ng Tayutay

1. Pagtutulad (Simile)—paghahambing ng dalawang tao, bagay o pangyayari na ginagamitan ng mga salitang tulad, para, wari .. etc.

hal. Singkinis ng labanos ang kutis ni TJ.

2. Pagwawangis (Metaphor)—tiyakang paghahambing

hal. Mapupulang makopa ang mga pisngi ni Justine.

3. Pagbibigay katauhan/padiwantao (Personification)—pinakikilos/ pinagagawa na tulad ng mga tao ang mga bagay

hal. Naghahabulan ang mga alon sa karagatan.

4. Pagmamalabis (Hyperbole)—nagpapahayag ng sitwasyong labis-labis

hal. Umulan ng piso ang bahay nina JV nang dumating si Lara.

5. Pauyam (Irony)—mga pananalitang pangungutya sa tao o bagay.

Hal. Ang laki mo naman Jaime. =P

6. Patalinghaga (Allegory)—pahayag na di tumutukoy sa literal na kahulugan ng mga salita

hal. Nahasik sa matabang lupa ang binhing isinabog ng Panginoon.

7. Pagtatambis (Antithesis)—pagpapahayag ng mga bagay na magkasalungat para bigyang bisa ang natatanging kahulugan

hal. Hindi ko maunawaan si Gester, pag mabait ka sa kanya, aawayin ka; pag hindi mo pinansin, aawayin ka pa din. AP talaga.. haha

8. Pagpapalit-tawag (Metonymy)—nagsasaad ng pagpapalit ng katawagan na mga bagay sa may kaugnayan dito

hal. Magagandang bulaklak ng nayon (dalaga) ang kanilang mga panauhin.

9. Pagpapalit-saklaw (Synecdoche)—pagbanggit sa isang bahagi na sumasaklaw sa kabuuan

hal. Si Majesty ang bisig at ulo ng Arsi Tutu.

10. Pagtanggi (Litotes)—pagpapahayag na ginagamitan ng salita o panangging hindi upang bigyan diin ang mahahalagang pagsang-ayon

hal. Hindi sa ayaw ko siyang pasamahin ngunit puno na ang van.

11. Pagdaramdam (Exclamation)—nagpapahayag ng pagkabigla/di karaniwang damdamin

hal. Tuwang tuwa ako nang manalo ka Megan! Binabati kita!

12. Pagtatanong/pasagusay (Rhetorical Ques)—tanong na di nangangailangan ng kasagutan


  May ina kayang makatitiis sa anak na naghihirap?

13. Pagtawag (Apostrophe)—pagtawag sa isang tao o bagay sa animo’y kaharap gayong wala naman.


  Paglimot! Nasaan ang awa mo?



--salita o lipon ng mga salita na nagpapahayag ng buong diwa/kaisipan

--isang sambitlang may panapos na himig sa dulo—DR. ALFONSO O. SANTIAGO

Inuri niya ang mga ito sa ss:

1. Eksistensiyal—mga pangungusap na nagsasaad ng pagkamayroon ng isa o mahigit na bagay na tinutukoy

hal. May tao sa silid-aralan.

2. Mga pangungusap ng paghanga.

Hal. Ang galing mo!

3. Nagpapahayag ng matinding damdamin

hal. Aray!

4. Nagsasaad ng panahon

hal. Bumabagyo.

5. Pormulasyong Panlipunan—mga pangungusap na nakagawian na ng ating lipunan

hal. Tao po.


Paksa (simuno)—pinag-uusapan sa pangungusap

Predikatibo (panaguri)—nagsasabi ng tungkol sa paksa


Pangungusap Ayon sa Gamit

1. Pasalaysay/ Paturol

2. Pautos/ Pakiusap

3. Patanong

4. Padamdam


Pangungusap Ayon sa Kayarian

1. Payak—binubuo ng isang sugnay na makapag-iisa


  Nag-aaral ng judo-karate si Genalyn.

  Nagtanim at nag-ani ng kamote sina Mean at Bern.

2. Tambalan—dalawa o higit pang sugnay na kapwa makapag-iisa


  Nagbigay ng lecture si MaEl ngunit siya ay nawala pagkatapos ng semester.

3. Hugnayan—isang sugnay na makapag-iisa at isa o higit pang sugnay na di-makapag-iisa


  Nagkuquiz kami nang dumating si Itchan.

4. Langkapan—dalawa o higit pang sugnay na makapag-iisa at ng isa o higit pang sugnay na di makapag-iisa


  Pag nag-utos si Cathy, sundin mo agad, matutuwa siya sa iyo at siya ay magkacart-wheel.




Sophist—maibigin sa karunungan; “man of learning”

Corax at Tesias—gumawa ng mga talumpati na binibigkas ng mga tao sa parliamento ng sinaunang Gresya; nagsilbing tagapayo o guro ng kanilang mga kababayan hinggil sa nararapat na gawin sa kanilang pagdulog sa parliamento


Coraxàmahalaga na ang bawat pahayag ay umaapela sa damdamin sa halip na sa isipan

Socratesàhindi lamang umaapela sa damdamin bagkus humahamon din sa isipan


Dayalektik—isang uri ng pangangatwiran kung saan ang mali ay naitatama at ang tama ay maaaring ipamali.—SOCRATES



--paraan ng pamumuhay, pananamit, pananalita at pagsulat

--nagbibigay distinksyon sa isang indibidwal

--sumsaklaw sa pagiging makabago, makaluma, marahas o karaniwan

--tono o punto de bista

--kasanayan sa pag-oorganisa ng pangungusap patungo sa talata

--sasalamin ng katangian ng isang indibidwal

--manipulasyon ng mga indibidwal na salita


Teoryang Behaviorist

--nakasaad dito ang reyalidad sa lipunang ginagalawan ng tao ang siyang pangunahing tagahubog ng kanyang mga kilos o pag-uugali—B.F. SKINNER



--masusing hinahabi o ipinoproseso ng utak ng mga ideya upang maisalin sa patutunguhan ang isang mensaheng nabuo

--pagpili ng mga paraan upang maihatid patungo sa destinasyon ang nabuong mensahe



--may-akda ng “The Beneficent of Doublespeak” sa kanyang kolum sa “Panorama” na nagpapaliwanag kung bakit likas ang pagkahilig sa eupimismo ng mga Pilipino.


Tatlong Uri ng Doublespeak Ayon kay William Luntz

1. Eupimismo/ Euphemism

--tumutukoy sa pagiging malumanay sa paggamit ng wika upang maiwasang makapanakit ng damdamin ng kapwa

2. Jargon

--isang propesyonal na lenggwahe na nadebelop mula sa pangangailangan ng isang tiyak na propesyon tulad sa larangan ng negosyo at akademya

--tumutukoy sa mga termino o parirala na eksklusibo lamang para sa isang tiyak na grupo

3. Gobbledygook/ Bureaucratese

--tumutukoy sa espesyal na lenggwahe na ginagamit upang pagandahin at pabanguhin ang imahen ng mga pulitiko sa tuwing nakagawa sila ng kapalpakan o masasangkot sa mga anomalya


Paraan ng Pagbibigay Motibasyon sa Madla—Peter J. Daniels

1. Kawalan ng Mapagpipilian

2. Paggamit ng Pansariling Interes

Personal ng Interes—tumutukoy sa bayolohikal na pangangailangan ng tao upang mabuhay; nagtutulak sa isang indibidwal upang proteksyunan ang sarili at bigyang prayoridad nang personal na pangangailangan

Pagiging Makasarili—paghahangad ng labis-labis hindi lamang upang mabuhay kundi upang higitan sa anumang aspeto ang kanyang kapwa

Hal. “Kailangan natin…” “mahalaga para sa atin…”

3. Paggamit ng Kaalaman

--maaaring isang kwento o pangyayari na lantad sa kabatiran ng publiko knug kaya madaling magtagpo ang kaisipan ng dalawang panig

4. May Himig ng Paninisi

--nangangailangan ng kaukulang pag-iingat sa dahilang may kinalaman ito sa personal na emosyon ng tao

hal. “ano ang mararamdaman mo kung…” “Pa’no kung ikaw ay…”

5. Paggamit ng Pananakot

--uri ng negatibong motibasyon; kinakailangan lamang na ipahayag ito na may himig pagmamalasakit; karaniwang maririnig sa mga magulang o guro.

Hal. “Ganito ang mangyayari kung…” “Maari kang mapahamak kapag...

6. Pambubulabog ng Konsensya

--mayroon ding himig ng paninisi kaya kailangan ang ibayong pag-iingat at dapat nasa tamang tyempo o pagkakataon ang paggamit nito

hal. “Huwag mong hayaan…” “Hahayaan mo na lang ba…”


--ang kaganapan ng pagiging manunulat ay ang makapaghatid ng mensahe sa paraang mauunawaan ng publiko—DEL HYMES


--naghain ng panukala kung paano dapat mangusap ang isang tao…

(pp.48-49) =P

“WHY WORRY” ni Dr. K. Sri Dhammananda

--nagsabing ang labis ang kadalasang pinagmumulan ng panganib…

Paraan ng maling pagsasalita ayon kay Buddha:

1. Pagsisinungaling

2. Panlilibak—paglalagay ng salit sa bibig ng ibang tao

3. Marahas na pagsasalita—tumutukoy din sa taong mahilig mang-akusa o likas na mapagbintang

4. Walang katuturang pahayag—tumutukoy sa mga taong ginawa nang libangan ang paglulubid ng buhangin sa tuwi-tuwina; may masabi lang.. 



1. Kahulugang Konotatibo

--tumutukoy sa ekstrang kahulugang taglay ng isang salita depende sa intension o motibo ng taong gumagamit nito

--tinatawag na “emotional” o “intellectual” na impact ng salita

2. Kahulugang Denotatibo

--nagtataglay o nagpapahiwatig ng neutral o obhektibong kahulugan ng mga termino; “dictionary meaning”

--literal na kahulugan ng salita na labas sa anumang emosyonal, politikal o etikal na insenwasyon na maaaring ikapit sa isang salita



Pornal na Lenggwahe

--wikang ginagamit sa seryoso at komplikadong paksa kung saan kinakailangan ang maselan na lenggwahe

--ginagamit upang maging personally involved ang tagapagsalita o manunulat sa kanyang paksa

--nagtataglay ng paggalang at gamitin sa akademya, propesyon at liham pangangalakal

Impormal na Lenggwahe

--kaswal ang gamit ng wika at nasa himig ng pakikipag-usap lamang na gamit ang pang-araw-araw na lenggwahe at di ito particular sa batas ng gramatika.


Lebel ng Wika Ayon kina Maxine Hairston at John J. Ruszkiwiez

àMasyadong Pormal

  àLegal na Dokumento

  àArtikulong Sayantipik

  àTalumpating Pampulitika


  àEditoryal at Kolum sa Pahayagan

  àPopular na Artikulo sa Magasin

  àPampersonal na Sulatin/Diary/Journal

  àLiham Pangkaibigan

  àMasyadong Impormal/Kolokyal o Kaswal


Pormal ang gamit ng lenggwahe kapag…

· Mahahabang pangungusap o talata

· Abstrakt ang mga salitang ginamit

· Minimal ang gamit ng pandiwa

· Seryoso ang tono ng manunulat


Impormal ang gamit ng lenggwahe kapag…

· Maiiksing pangungusap at talataan

· Paghahalo ng abtrakt at konkretong pangalan

· Hitik sa mga personal na panghalip at pandiwa

· May himig na seryoso at kaswal


Komunikasyong BERBAL

--ang talastasang nagaganap sa pagitan ng mga tao gamit ang mga salita

--anumang gawain ng paghahatid ng mensahe na ang ginagamit ay ang wika.

Komunikasyong DI BERBAL

--tinatawag na kilos at galaw, facial reaction, pagtaas ng kilat, pagsimangot, pagkunot ng noo, atbp.

--hindi ginagamitan ng wika

Nahahati ito sa tatlo ayon kina WELDON KRIS at JURGEN RUESCH:

1. Sign Language—tumutukoy sa kumpas, senyas, kumpas o galaw ng kamay bilang pamalit sa salita

2. Action Language—pagbibigay interpretasyon sa kinikilos ng tao

3. Object Language—paggamit ng material na bagay sa pagpaparating ng mensahe



  Ang palatandaan ng isang malinaw na komunikasyon ay ang pagtugon o pagsunod nito sa tamang organisasyon ng paghahanay ng mga kaisipan at ideya kung saan dapat isaalang-alang ang mga sumusunod:

1. Kaisahan/ Unity—iisa lamang ang paksang tinatalakay upang malinaw na mailahad ang kaisahan ng mga ideya sa pagbuo ng mga pangungusap at talata

2. Pagkakaroon ng Ugnayan/ Coherence—tumutukoy sa pagkakaugnayan ng talata sa loob ng isang komposisyon

3. Diin/ Emphasis—tinatawag na “kernel sentence”, “thesis statement”, o nangingibabaw na kaisipan sa bawat talata na maaaring nasa unahan o hulihang bahagi

  Paraan ng Pagbibigay-Diin Ayon kina Casanova at Rubin:

· Paglalagay ng punong kaisipan sa unahan ng talata, sa hulihan o dili kaya’y sa unahan at sa hulihan.

· Pagbibigay ng malaking bahagi ng mga higit ng makabuluhang detalye

· Pag-uulit ng punong kaisipan sa naiibang mga salita o paraan

· Pagkakaroon ng patas na damdamin patungo sa kasukdulan, pag-aayos ng mga detalye mula sa di gaanong mahalaga patungo sa higit na mahalaga


“Ang wika ay sumusunod lamang sa lakad ng mga bagay. Kapag nagbago ang bagay, nag-iiba rin ang wika”—P.L. STRAWSON


**Kailangan ang iba’t ibang gamit ng wika para sa iba’t ibang uri ng tagapakinig o sa bawat magkaibang pagkakataon

**Ang wikang ginagamit sa pagpapahayag ay dapat na iniaangkop sa uri ng tagapakinig o mambabasa


Kailan masasabing kaswal ang gamit ng lenggwahe?

· Maikli ang pagkakabuo ng mga talata at pangungusap

· Gumagamit ng mga eksaherasyon

· Sagana sa mga personal na panghalip

· Pagbanggit sa ngalan ng iba’t ibang personalidad

· Katatagpuan ng mga salitang balbal

· Hindi gaanong seryoso ang atake sa paksa

· Taglay ang entertainment value at pagiging impormatibo



1. Tiyaking maayos ang simula.

2. Lumikha ng kapanabikan.

3. Pulsuhan ang madla.

4. Bigyang dramatisasyon ang mga katotohanang ginamit.

5. Ang pagbibigay diin na sinusundan ng pananahimik ay umani ng positibong pagtugon.

6. Ilahad ang mensahe punto por punto.

7. Maging maugnayin


KOMUNIKASYONàtawag sa paghahatid at pagpapalitan ng mga ideya; kadalasang ginagawa sa pamamagitan ng karaniwang simbolo.

àpagpapalitan ng ideya, opinyon o impormasyon sa pamamagitan ng pagsasalita, pagsulat o pagsenyas.


Uri ng Komunikasyong BERBAL ayon kay Carmelita S. Lorenzo

1. Komunikasyon Pasalita—isinasagawa nang pabigkas tulad ng pakikipag-usap nang harapan ng dalawang tao, pakikipagpulong ng isang pinuno sa kanyang mga tauhan .. etc

2. Komunikasyong Pasulat—pakikipag-unawaan o pakikipagpalitan ng ideya o mensahe sa pamamagitan ng pagsulat. Hal. Telegrama, memorandum, pahayagan.. etc.


  4K’s sa Mabisang Pagsulat

1. KALINAWAN—tiyak at madaling mauunawaan ang mga gagamiting salita; maging direct to the point at iwasan ang pagiging maligoy sa pagbubuo ng kaisipan

2. KAISAHAN—tumutukoy sa pagkakaugnay-ugnay ng mga salita sa loob ng isang pangungusap gayundin ng mga ugnayan ng mga ideya sa loob ng pahayag

3. KAIKLIAN—taglay lamang ang mahahalagang datos na may kaugnayan sa paksang tinatalakay

4. KAWASTUAN—laman lang ay tunay na detalye at impormasyon


Paano Makabubuo ng Mahusay na Kasanayan sa Pagsusulat?

1. Gawing kawili-wili ang pagsusulat

2. Magsulat nang magsulat

3. Ibahagi ang mga mahuhusay na naisulat


Mga Dapat Isaalang-alang sa Pagsusulat

1. Maging malinaw sa mga layunin at ilahad ito.

2. Ipaliwanag kung ano ang nais maing tugon sa mambabasa.

3. Sikaping magtaglay ng kredibilidad ang sulatin at nagpapakita ng pagkamagalang sa mga mambabasa.

4. Gumagamit ng angkop na pamamaraan ng komunikasyon


Mga Dapat Isaalang-alang sa Pagpapahusay sa Komunikasyong Pasalita

1. Pagsaalang-alang sa tagapakinig

2. Paghahanay at pagbubuo ng mga impormasyon

3. Pagsasaalang-alang sa pamamaraan ng masining na pagbigkas

4. Maayos na pagpili sa mga salitang gagamitin

5. Bumuo ng dayalogo sa pagitan ng tagapagsalita at ng mga tagapakinig

· Direktang katanungan

· Makatawag-pansing pahayag

· Karanasan

· Anekdota o biro/joke

· Demonstrasyon

6. Paggamit ng kilos at kumpas



--pagpapahayag ng ating iniisip at pagtugon sa ipinahhayag ng iba …



A. Naratibong Pagpapahayag o Pagsasalaysay

--isang paraan ng pagpapahayag na nag-uugnay ng mga pangyayari ay may layuning magkwento.

--pinakamatandang anyo ng pagpapahayag, nagsisimula sa mga alamat, epiko at mga kwentong bayan

pinagkukunan ng paksa: sariling karanasan, narinig, nakita, nabalitaan, kathang isip

B. Deskriptibo Pagpapahayag o Paglalarawan

--layon ay bumuo ng isang hugis o anyo ng isang tao, pook, pangyayari sa pamamagitan ng mga angkop at piling-piling salita

  Uri ng Deskriptibo

· Karaniwan/Ohektibong Paglalarawan—di kasangkot ang damdamin at opinyon ng manunulat; nakikita ng mata

· Masining/Subhektibong Paglalarawan—kung ginagamitan ng mga tayutay na naglalayong pukawin ang guniguni ng mambabasa sa tagapakinig

C. Ekspositori o paglalahad

--layon ay magbigay kaalanan, magpaliwanag at tumugon sa pangangailangang pangkarunungan

Sanaysay—malimit na gamitin dahil dito’y naipapahayag ng isang tao ang kanyang kuro-kuro hinggil sa paksa; kinapapalooban ng palagay ng sumulat ng paksa

Pangulong Tudling—isang kuru-kuro ng patnugot ng pahayagan hinggil sa isang mahalagang balita; layunin nito ang mamamatnubay sa mga kuru-kuro ng madla at magbigat isyu o ng impormasyon

D. Argumentatibo o Pangangatwiran

--naghaharap ng patotoo o ebidensya upang ang isang proposisyon o paniniwala ay maging katanggap-tanggap sa iba; nahihimok natin ang iba na kumilos ayon sa nais natin


Mga Komposisyong PERSONAL

1. Talaarawan

--pagsulat ng ating masasayang sandali ng buhay, pati na rin ang kalungkutan o pagsubok ng buhay; naglalapit sa atin nang higit sa Dakilang Lumikha

2. Awtobayograpiya



--bungang isip na isinatitik; sumasaklaw sa lahat ng uri ng katha na tumutulong sa wastong ikauunawa sa kahapon, ngayon at bukas ng isang bansa—RUFINO ALEJANDRO at PONCIANO BP. PINEDA

--anumang nasusulat sa anyong tuluyan o patula sa isang particular na panahon, lalo na yaong nasusulat bunga ng imahinasyon at kritikal na pag-iisip, nagtataglay ng permanenteng kahalagahan o balyu at nagbibigay ng mabuting epekto sa damdamin—WEBSTER


--tinatawag ding kathambuhay; mahaba kaysa sa maikling kwento, kinasasangkutan ng kawili-wili at masalimuot na pangyayaring sumasaklaw sa isang mahabang panahon


--naglalarawan ng mga pangyayari sa buhay ng tao sa pamamagitan ng mga tauhang gumaganap sa ibabaw ng entablado. URI NG DULA: komedya, melodrama, trahedya, parsa at saynete


--ang mga pangyayari ay payak lamang, may mga kilos na organisado, may tunggalian ng mga tauhan, may banghay, may kasukdulan at may kakalasan o wakas


--naglalahad at tumatalakay sa isang paksa ayon sa sariling pananaw at kuru-kuro ng may-akda; isa sa pinakamadaling isulat sapagkat sariling opinyon lamang ito ng manunulat


--kwentong isinalarawan na nakapagpapalibang sa mga mambabasa


--nagpapahayag ng damdamin sa pamamagitan ng mga piling salita na maaaring may sukat at tugma, talinghaga at kariktan at maaari namang wala


--tula na nilapatan ng himig at musika, inawit at pinatatanyag ng isang mang-aawit na nagpapasalin-salin sa mga dumarating na henerasyon



1. Romantisismo—higit na nangingibabaw ang damdamin ng mga tauhan kaysa isipan

2. Realismo—pinalulutang ang katotohanang nangyayari sa tunay na buhay

3. Simbolismo—pamamaraan ng paglalahad ng mga bagay, kaisipan at damdamin sa pamamagitan ng mga sagisag

4. Eksistensyalismo—hinahanap ang kahalagahan ng personalidad ng tao at ang kapangyarihan ng kapasyahan laban sa katwiran

5. Feminismo—nagbibigay-diin sa karanasan at kakayahan ng mga kababaihan

6. Naturalismo—pananalig na mailarawan ang kalikasan nang buong katapatan, kaya’t malimit na maipagkamali sa realismo

7. Modernismo—tumutukoy sa paghihimagsik sa isang tradisyon, relihiyon, kaugalian, o paniniwala upang magkaroon ng puwang ang mga pagbabago

8. Idealismo—paniniwala sa pinakamahusay na dapat gawin

9. Klasismo—pinangingibabaw ang isipan laban sa damdamin

10. Moralistiko—ipinalalagay na may kapangyarihang maglahad ang akda

11. Marxismo—hindi lamang sa larangan ng pagsusuri ang sinasaklaw nito kundi gayundin ang larangan ng kultura, pulitika, ekonomiya at pilosopiya

12. Surealismo—pangingibabaw sa pananalig na ito ang katotohanan sa kabila pa ng katotohanan



1. Bisa sa Isip

2. Bisa sa Damdamin

3. Bisa sa Kaasalan

4. Bisa sa Lipunan



1. Bumasa

2. Magsanay

3. Pagbibigay pagkakataon/pagtuturo sa sarili

4. Tumuklas ng mga papaksain at bigyan ng paglinang

5. May layunin ang manunulat di lamang para sa kanyang sarili at higit sa lahat para sa kanyang mambabasa

6. Magplano

7. Magbalangkas

8. Porma ng susulatin


Hakbang sa Pagsulat ng Talambuhay (Lincoln at Suid)

1. Pagpili ng paksa

2. Pagpasyahan ang mga bahagi ng paksa na ibig saklawin

3. Gumawa ng balangkas hinggil sa gagawing pananaliksik

4. Pagsasagawa ng pananaliksik

5. Planuhin ang pagsulat ng talambuhay

6. Simulan na ang pagbabalangkas at pag-eedit ng naisulat na talambuhay

7. Pangwakas na pagsulat


Mga Maaaring Paghanguan ng Paksa ng Isang Sulatin

1. Karanasan

2. Nakita o Nasaksihan

3. Narinig

4. Nabasa


Mga Dapat Isaalang-alang sa Pagsulat

1. Isipin kung ano ang bago

2. Kaalaman sa paksa

3. Iwasan ang pagiging maligoy

4. Iugnay ang mga kaganapan sa paligid sa paksang tinatalakay


Papel na ginagampanan ng manunulat sa lipunan (Casanova & Tiamson)

1. tagapamulat ng isipan at damdamin ng kanyang panahon

2. tagapagturo

3. tagapukaw ng isipan at damdamin ng madla

4. taga-aliw


Istilo ng Pagsulat

1. Personal

2. Kumbersisyunal o nakikipag-usap lamang

3. Sarkastiko

4. Nagtatanong

5. Salungatin


Paraan sa Pagbuo ng Panimula

1. Pagtatanong

2. Paggamit ng tuwirang sipi

3. Pagbibigay diskripsyon

4. Pagbibigay dipinisyon

5. Paggamit ng anekdota

6. Paggamit ng analohiya

7. Paggamit ng isang panawagan

8. Pagpapaliwanag ng paksa

9. Pagpapaliwanag sa sariling opinyon o paniniwala

10. Paggamit ng dayalogo


Paraan ng Pagbuo ng Gitnang Bahagi ng Sulatin

1. Pag-uuri

2. Pag-aanalisa


Paraan ng Pagbuo ng Wakas

1. Pag-iiwan ng katanungan 

2. Pagbubuo

3. Paghihinuha

4. Pagrerekap

5. Pagbibigay ng siping pahayag (quotation)


Pinagkukunan ng tao ng kanyang mga isasalaysay (Casanova & Rubin)

1. karanasan

2. mga nabasa

3. mga napakinggan 

4. mga naitala



Hakbangin sa Pagsulat ng Sanaysay

1. paksa

2. banghay

3. tauhan

4. tagpuan



--akdang pampanitikan na nauuri sa anyong tuluyan na karaniwang pumapaksa sa mga kaisipan at mga bagay-bagay na sadyang kinapupulutan ng aral at aliw ng mga mambabasa—JOSE ARROGANTE

--pagsasalaysay ng 

isang sanay sa pagsasaysay—ALEJANDRO ABADILLA


Uri ng Sanaysay

1. Pormal o maanyo

2. Di-Pormal o di-maanyo

Sunday, June 21, 2009

multo multo? naniniwala ka ba d2 o kathang isip lamang ang lahat ng ito? REPOST from my another blog

may mga multo nga bang naninirahan sa mansyon ng mga Marcos sa Canlubang? Isang tanong na ang sagot pwedeng oo meron at pwedeng wala,,
naging intresado aq sa naturang mansyon ng mapanood q sya sa Rated K- ABSCBN 2,, para sa UNDAS episode....
nagkataong gagawa kami ng baby thesis or research paper para sa Filipino i decided na un ung kunin kong topic,

and the story starts here..........

it was monday 12pm exactly i went to canlubang,,,nagkita kami ng partner ko sa thesis na c grace andam,,,umalis kami sa terminal ng tricycle (takenote tricycle instead na jeep sa kadahilanang sa umaga lang at sa hapon ang byahe tapos wala pang kasiguraduhan na makakauwi kami in case na wlang masakyan,,, and kung magkano?300.00 lng naman but the condition is hihintayin kami hanggang di kami natatapos ng pagkuha sa mansyon)
until quarter to 1pm umalis kmi ng carmell mall sa canlubang..we travel sa lubak-lubak na kalsada,,naglalakihang mga pabrika,,sa diezmo ata un saka sa casile,,taz ung mga magagandang subd. kasama na ang napakalawak na golf course,,,isang napakalayong paglalakbay ni wala kang masasalubong na sasakyan,,taz medyo paakyat sa bundok ung daanan,,,itinuro sa amin ni mang rudy isang bahay nasa kakahuyan at presto sya na nga ang aming pakay

narito ang ilan sa mga larawang aking unang nakuna pakarating namin sa lugar na iyon:



ang unang bumungad sa amin..ang napakatahimik na mansyon na sa unang tingin pa lang alam mong may milagrong nagaganap pagsapit ng dilim.
habang kumukuha ako ng larawan (video) nakarinig ako ng kalampag ng kadena hindi ko alam kung saan nanggaling,,,napag-alaman ko katagalan ang bantay pala sa naturang mansyon (guard) sa una nagalit siya sa amin partikular na sa akin sa kadahilanang bawal kumuha ng litrato sa kabilang parte ng mansyon kung saan nagtitigil ang Unang Ginang kapag pumupunta doon

nakipag-usap kami sa guard,ipinaliwanag namin sa kanya na kaylangan namin ito sa thesis,,pumayag sya pero napansin niya ang daladala kong video cam na wala akong kaalam-alam na mahigpit iyong ipinagbabawal sa naturang masyon,ang pagkuha ng mga parte ng mansyon,,kinakailangan pa raw na kumuha ng permit sa munisipyo sa ng Cabuyao..

idinaan na lng namin sya sa pakiusap hanggang sa pumayag sya at tumuloy kami sa kabilang bahagi ng mansyon.nakapasok kami sa loob ng mansyon (ikatlong larawan sa itaas)
sa aming pagpasok tumambad sa amin ang napakaraming larawan, mga proyekto ng namayapang c marcos sa kaniyang napakahabang termino, maging ang mga mga adhikain nya sa mga mahihirap nating kababayan, sari-saring larawan na sumasalamin sa makulay at makontrobersyang pamumuno niya, habang nag-iikot ikot kami nakikiramdam aq sa bawat sulok ng silid-tanggapang iyon nakikiramdam aq sa mga kaluskos at inggit ng bintanang walang kurtina.
hanggang sa umakyat kami ng hagdan maraming paintings ang nakasabit sa pader ng hagdan naroon ang nakadipang si marcos at sa kabilang parte ang imahe ng unang ginang na animo isang dyosa..
pinahintulutan aq ng guard na kunan iyon ng video habang nakabantay siya,,
ng aktong kinukunan ko sya biglang lumamig ang paligid bagamat ang bintana ay saraong-sarado bakit nagkakahangin doon, isang napakalamig na simoy ng hangin na nagpatayo ng mga balahibo ko,,,hindi ko pinansin at pinatay ko na ang video cam,pumasok kami sa mga silid doon,,bagamat kakikitaan ng kalumaan naroon pa rin ang mga mamahaling materyales na ginamit sa mga silid doon,,napasok din namin ang magarang silid ng lalaking marcos,isang gintong bathtub ang tumambad sa amin bagamat ang ibang parte nito ay basag basag na sa kadahilanang ninanakaw, maging ang aircon dito ay nawawala na rin
ng nasa huling silid na kami,,umupo ako sa kutson doon habang nagmamasid sa paligid ng silid ng aktong lalabas na ako naramdaman kong may malamig na hangin dumapo sa binti ko,
(naka school uniform po ako nung time na un)
ang hangin alam kong sa ilalim ng kama nagmula at sa kadahilanang nahuli akong lumabas di na ako naglakas loob na silipin kung anumang hangin meron sa ilalim ng kama doon.
bumaba kami ng walang nalaman ang aking dalawang kasama na may nararamdaman akong kakaiba,lumabas kami gamit ang secret way diretso sa kusina ng mansyon
may napansin akong isang maliit na pinto sa lalim ng hagdan daan daw iyon papunta sa basement ng bahay 
(may underground at tunnel po na di nabanggit sa amin kung saan patungo)
hindi kami binigyang pahintulot ng bantay na pumasok pa doon.
lumabas na kami ng bahay at sa likod na parte ng mansyon ako kumuha ng video,
bagamat wala akong nararamdamang kaba, isang katanungan lang ang iniisip ko,anong ibig sabihin ng hangin na nararamdamn ko sa itaas sa kabila ng kalmadong panahon,
naka-usap din namin ang caretaker ng mansyon si aling maria na halos walong taon ng naninilbihan bilang tagapangalaga ng mansyon
siya narin ang nagsabi na may nagpapakita ngang multo doon 
isang babaeng nasaya ng puti na palaging nakabantay sa kabilang parte ng masyon (una at ikalawang larawan sa itaas) sa naturang kanto ng terrace laging nakaupo ang babae ayon kay aling maria
at ang pangalawa ay ang lalaking nakaitim ng suot sa kabilang bahagi ng mansyon kung saan kami nakapsok 
(hindi kaya hininga nya ang nararamdaman kong lamig doon)
base na rin sa kwento ni aling maria ang lalaking multo ang siyang madalas magpakita sa kanya
minsan daw habang naglalakad siya sa harapan ng mnasyon bigla na lang siyang binato ng walis tambo mula sa itaas ng bahay,
(marami pa siyang naikwentong mga nakakatakot na kanyang naranasan doon na katgalan daw ay nasanay na siya)
sa parte ng mansyon ng mahigpit na ipinagbabawal kunan pinasimplehan q ng kuha,,,dito tumambad sa akin ang mga mamahaling gamit na nakadisplay doon flat tv,,,piano maging ang napakalalaking ceramics at ang mga makikintad na kahoy na upuan
sa silid-aklatan nakatambak ang napakraming libro na sya daw binabasa ng mga anak ng mga marcos nung kanilang kabataan pa,
ang huling larawan, sa parteng iyon nagreenactment ng UNDAS episode ang team ng Rated K ni Ms. Korina Sanches
at sa parte ko isang karangalan bagamat isang simpleng rason lng na nakunan ko loob ng mansyon na hindi naipakita sa UNDAS episode ng Rated K.
nasa akin pa rin po ang video,,nakatago bilang isang kayamanan at karanasang hinding-hindi ko makalilimutan
sa mga nakakabasa nito na hindi naniniwala it's up to you guys wether you believe it or not,,
lahat idenetalye ko at yan yung totoong nangyari
hindi na nga po pla natuloy na yan pa rin ang topic namin sa thesis it happen na kaylangan naming magpalit ng topic unang una babalik ulit kami doon,mahal ang pamasahe kase akala namin malapit lng,,pangalawa kawalang ng suportang pinensyal upang magsagawa kami ng pag-aaral to prove na may multo talaga
at sa naranasan ko sa naturang mansyon
babalik pa ko sa lugar na iyon dala-dala ang pasasalamat
at muli nakagawa ako ng ganitong blog
kung saan naging daan upang mailahad ko ang kwento sa naturang mansyon
isang pasasalamat
anna grace andam (partner sa thesis)
mang rudy (tricycle driver)
guard (nakalimutan ko ang pangalan
aling maria (caretaker ng mansyon)
at sa naglaan ng oras sa pagbabasa


Saturday, June 20, 2009

The top 10 richest and poorest congressmen on Philippine Congress

The top 10 richest congressmen are:
1. Rep. Cynthia Villar (P1.05-B)
2. Rep. Ferdinand Martin Romualdez (P477-M)
3. Rep. Julio Ledesma IV (P447-M)
4. Rep. Arturo Robes (P441-M)
5. Rep. Judy Syjuco (P265-M)
6. Rep. Monica Prieto Teodoro (P232-M)
7. Rep. Ferjenel Biron (P191-M)
8. Rep. Ferdinand Marcos Jr. (P180-M)
9. Rep. Edgar San Luis (P165-M)
10. Rep. Aurelio Gonzalez Jr. (P153-M)

The top 10 poorest:

1. Rep. Rafael Mariano (P55-T)
2. Rep. Teodoro Casiño (P118-T)
3. Rep. Adam Relson Jala (P782-T)
4. Rep. Satur Ocampo (P895-T)
5. Rep. Mujiv Hataman (P1.5-M)
6. Rep. Liza Maza (P1.5-M)
7. Rep. Benjamin Asilo (P1.9-M)
8. Rep. Pedro Pancho (P2-M)
9. Rep. Sharee Ann Tan (P2.1-M)
10. Rep. Narciso Santiago III (P2.9-M)

Villar wife is sole billionaire in Congress

Parañaque Rep. Cynthia Villar registered a networth of P1.047 billion as of end-2008, making her the only billionaire among her peers. She reported having no liabilities.

Villar’s networth is more than twice the next richest solons in the list, Leyte Rep. Ferdinand Martin Romualdez, Negros Occidental Rep. Julio Ledesma IV, and San Jose del Monte Rep. Arturo Robes. They reported respective networths of P477 million, P447 million, and P441 million.

Villar's networth is almost 19,000 times that of the poorest congressman, Anakpawis Rep. Rafael Mariano, who reported P55,501.72.

Three other congressmen registered a networth less than P1 million: Bayan Muna Rep. Satur Ocampo (P895,145), Bohol Rep. Adam Relson Jala (P782,000), and Bayan Muna Rep. Teodoro Casiño (P119,900).

Presidential aspirant Gilbert Teodoro’s wife, Monica, is 6th richest with a networth of P232 million, while former Speaker Jose De Venecia Jr. landed on the 40th slot with P62.7 million.

Current House Speaker Prospero Nograles ranked 29th with a networth of P88.26 million. He reported assets of P133 million and liabilities of P45 million.

Former President Ferdinand Marcos’s son and namesake, Ferdinand Jr., placed 8th with networth of P180 million, while President Arroyo’s son, Mickey Arroyo ranked 23rd with P99 million.

Here is a list of the senators, arranged based on their net worth based on their SALN.

1. VILLAR, Manuel 1.046 billion
2. MADRIGAL, Jamby 145.617 million
3. PONCE ENRIILE, Juan 120.367 million
4. REVILLA, Bong 118 million (2007)
5. ROXAS, Mar 110.7 million (2007)
6. ESTRADA, Jinggoy 83.511 million
7. CAYETANO, Pia P75.593 million (2008)
8. SANTIAGO, Miriam 75.755 million
9. LEGARDA, Loren 45.59 million
10. ANGARA, Edgardo 44.1 million (2007)
11. ZUBIRI, Juan Miguel 30.733 million 
12. BIAZON, Rodolfo 29.456 million
13. LACSON, Panfilo 27.806 million
14. GORDON, Richard 27 million (2007)
15. CAYETANO, Alan Peter 16.266 million
16. HONASAN, Gregorio 15.904 million
17. LAPID, Lito 14.6 million
18. AQUINO, Benigno III 14 million (2007)
19. PIMENTEL, Aquilino Jr. 12.313 million
20. PANGILINAN, Francis 11.684 million
21. ARROYO, Joker 11.05 million
22. ESCUDERO, Chiz 7.683 million
23. TRILLANES, Antonio IV 2.966 million

Villar is RP's richest senator; Trillanes poorest

Senator Manuel Villar remains the wealthiest among 23 senators, being the chamber's sole billionaire, based on the Statements of Assets, Liabilities and Net Worth (SALN) of the lawmakers.

Villar, whose net worth based on his SALN is P 1.046 billion, is one of the country's top real estate developers. His wife, Parañaque Rep. Cynthia Villar, is also the richest among the 238 representatives in the House of Representatives.

Sen. Villar is followed by Senator Jamby Madrigal, whose net worth is P145.6 million, and Senator Juan Ponce Enrile, with P120.3 million.

Others in the top ten are Senators Ramon Revilla, Mar Roxas, Jinggoy Estrada, Pia Cayetano, Miriam Santiago, Loren Legarda and Edgardo Angara.

Senator Antonio Trillanes has the least wealth, at P2.9 million.

He is followed by Senator Francis Escudero, who reported a net worth of P7.6 million.

Thursday, June 18, 2009

'Home remedies' for A (H1N1)

Instead of buying Vitamin C pills and other "anti-swine flu" potions, why not eat "camote" instead?

To protect oneself amid the influenza A (H1N1) outbreak, herbalist Dr. Galvez Tan said there is no need to spend on costly medicines or face masks when there are equally potent - but cheaper - alternative medicines available right in your own backyard or kitchen.

"In truth, there are many ingredients that we use every day in our kitchens that can already provide a lot of protection for our bodies. It's just that, there's a lack of awareness about these things," he said in Filipino. 

Tan explained that ingredients commonly used for sautéed dishes like ginger, garlic, and onions have excellent phytochemicals that can kill microbes and bacteria. These ingredients can be fried along with vegetables or chopped raw for "ensalada." 

"In fact, our ancestors used to recommend onion soup or traditional "salabat" (ginger brew) as colds medicine," he said. 

Yellow ginger has anti-inflammatory properties that are good for sore throat or itchy nasal cavities. Meanwhile, green leafy vegetables like camote tops, chili leaves, "saluyot", "kangkong" (water spinach), meanwhile, are "powerful" because they contain lots of antioxidants (Vitamins A, C, and E) and Zinc, Selenium, Folic acid. These should be served uncooked or unheated, lest they lose 70% of their nutrients. 

Fruits like bananas, pineapple, papaya, and mango are rich sources of vitamins. Coconut and extra virgin coconut oil has lauric acid, which is a good anti-viral property. Other good immune system boosters are sweet potato, boiled corn, "ube" and muscovado. These strengthen resistance and are fiber-rich to boot.

"The beauty of it all is that these are non-toxic, non-fatal, and you won't get overdosed because thousands of years of usage around the world have proven this," Tan said.

The self-confessed alternative medicine expert believes that most Filipinos already have an innate capacity to ward off "swine flu" because their diet is rich in these ingredients. "I think what we have is a wild case of swine flu because of the things we eat. We shouldn't panic, but we should stick to a healthy lifestyle every day," he said.

Meanwhile, Dr. Lyndon Leesuy, program director of the Department of Health (DOH) National Dengue and Emerging Infectious Diseases, said the general public should employ all means to protect themselves by keeping their hands clean and bodies healthy.

He also clarified that there is no need to buy surgical masks at the moment, unless you are an A(H1N1) victim or if you are taking care of an infected patient. He said the "swine flu" virus only remains outside the body for 6 to 8 hours and it is unlikely that it will spread if the infected person was immediately isolated or quarantined. Report from Sol Aragones, ABS-CBN News.

schools that have confirmed cases of AH1N1

University of the Philippines-Diliman,

Miriam College,

Ateneo High School,

De la Salle University-Taft,

Mapua Institute of Technology in Makati,

College of St. Benilde-DLSU,

Far Eastern Universit-East Asia College,

Lagro Elementary School,

St. Andrews College Parañaque,

Our Lady of Petpetual Succor College in Marikina City,

Hilera Elementary School in Jaen,Nueva Ecija,

Doña Candelaria Meneses Duque Memorial High School in Bulacan and

Philippine Science High School in Eastern Visayas.

Wednesday, June 17, 2009

June 19 is a big day for Celyo Rizal

BY ERIC ABELLANO (BSBA- rizal college of laguna)(http://profiles.friendster.com/14420476)

Celyo Rizal Inc., the national
federation of Rizalistas, presents its
own unique program to celebrate Dr. Jose
P. Rizal's 148th birth anniversary on
June 19. Central focus is its festival
of events in Calamba City. Satellite
celebrations will be held by different
member-groups of the Celyo Rizal
federation all over the nation.

The Rizalistas, now numbering in the
millions, await with baited breath the
final passage in the Senate of the Rizal
Bill otherwise known as HBN 5408 making
June 19 of every year the official
national Rizal Day in the country. The
Rizal Bill through the principal
authorship of Manila Congressman Jaime
C. Lopez was unanimously approved in
Congress last year. Passage of the bill
into law will be a double jubilation for
the Rizalistas and the rest of our people.

Giving Celyo Rizal, Inc. official status
was a great task in itself (its
SEC-registered). Its founder is the
Suprema Babaylan, Reyna Yolanda Liban
Manalo. Its task is to provide
Rizalistas not only a firm legal status,
but to unite all, thus giving them One
Mind: One Spirit: One Body: One Voice.

Celyo Rizal this year is participating
in the Rizal Festivities of Calamba
City’s Jose Rizal birth anniversary
celebrations. For the very first time,
Calamba City, Rizal’s birthplace, begins
its homage on June 12, Independence Day,
and continues until June 19, Rizal’s

Colorful, splendiferous spectacles are
to be expected,with a carnivalesque air
and atmosphere, a fitting homage and
salute to our foremost, supremest Father
and Architect of our Filipino nation.

Celyo Rizal will pay homage and
all-encompassing love to Bathalang Ama
by presenting its own unique program to
the theme: "Sino at Ano si Dr. Jose
Rizal," which conjuncts with Calamba
City’s theme: "Dr. Jose Rizal, Isang
Calambenyo, Idolo ng Sambayanang Pilipino."

Celyo Rizal's program and presentations
begins at 12 noon on June 18 at the LLC
Auditorium in Calamba City and ends on
June 19 with the Float Parade. Rizalista
delegates of different federated sects
and groups from all over the country are
gathering to take part in the grand
celebration of June 19. Everyone is invited.


Pacquiao at 57th spot on Forbes' Celebrity 100

Filipino boxing icon Manny Pacquiao has been ranked at the 57th place on Forbes magazine’s 100 most powerful celebrities in the world for 2009 — the lone professional boxer to be included in the list.

This marks the first time Pacquiao made it on the elite list, which has Hollywood star Angelina Jolie at No. 1. 

“Widely regarded at the best pound-for-pound boxer in the world, Pacquiao had two blockbuster fights in the past year: He took on Oscar De La Hoya in December and Ricky Hatton in May. Pac-Man is a huge celebrity in his home of the Philippines and plans to run for political office there once his days in the ring are over,” Forbes said in a brief write-up. 

With this, Pacquiao — currently the recognized No. 1 pound-for-pound boxer in the world — joins fellow elite athletes such as golf icon Tiger Woods, NBA stars Michael Jordan, LeBron James, Kobe Bryant, Kevin Garnett and Shaquille O’Neal, tennis standout Serena Williams, and soccer star Ronaldinho.

The General Santos City-based southpaw was earlier ranked by Time magazine on its list of most influential people.

Pacquiao plans to return to the ring in October against a still unnamed opponent. 

back to school back to basic,,,

Pasukan na naman and it seems takot tayong parepareho regarding the swine flu AH1N1.

Sabi patatagan na lng daw ng resistensya,,how would it be if talagang infected na ung area mo db. Another problem let say papasok ka sa campus nyo,nkamask possible na either iisipin ng makakakita sau na nakamask ka masyado kang OA or infected ka ayaw mong makahawa,,dba?

Baka every week-end na lng ako makapag-update ng blog,,since my pasok na nga,,so might be focus muna sa studies rather than blogging,

anyway wanna say thank you to all the searchers na naliligaw sa blog ko,,all of you make my blogging experience got more crazy,haha,,ang dami kong viewers..almost 3 days pa lng when i registered my blog to TOPBLOG (news and journal category) nasa top 20 na ako rank #17, as of 7:00 am,,tapos 1822 visitors,,

ung isa kong blog http://rizalcollegeoflaguna.blogspot.com/ rank as # 36,hehe,,last day ko lng sya na register for TOPBLOG (education category) ayun,,,saya!

mga kablog ingat na lng po tayong pare-pareho

:thank you to the following:ABS-CBN NEWS,PHILIPPINE STAR,PHILIPPINE DAILY INQUIRER,WWW.WHO.INT, and sa DOH for all of my blog entries,,

never akong naligaw sa website ng GMA 7 HAHAHA,,

Mag-uupdate ako if i have a time

Thursday, June 11, 2009

Angola is world's most expensive expat city

LUANDA -- Angola's capital Luanda has again been rated the most expensive city in the world for expat workers, followed by Tokyo, according to a survey published Wednesday.

The latest Cost of Living Survey by human resources consultancy ECA International saw Luanda maintain top spot on the world priciest locations for foreigners, while Maseru in the small mountain state Lesotho was the cheapest.

The next three cities in the ranking after Luanda and Tokyo were all in Japan -- Nagoya, Yokohama and Kobe -- according to the report.

Oil rich Angola has enjoyed an unprecedented economic boom since a 27-year civil war ended in 2002 which has attracted an influx of foreign workers.

The country's war-damaged industry and poor infrastructure means the bulk of food, construction materials and other goods have to be imported, driving up costs.

Decent Luanda apartments with water and electricity go for upwards of $15,000 (€10,700) a month, a basic meal out can top $100 and imported European cheese sells for over $15 a piece.

The high prices sit incongruously next to the rest of Angola's poverty with two thirds of the population living on less than two dollars a day.

Maintaining their position in the top ten were Copenhagen in Denmark, Oslo in Norway, Geneva and the Swiss cities of Geneva, Zurich and Basel.

ECA's cost of living data, conducted twice a year, compares a selection of 125 consumer goods and services in over 370 locations worldwide

Philippine Declaration of Independence


The Philippine Declaration of Independence occurred on June 12, 1898 in the Philippines, where Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo (later to become the Philippines' first Republican President) proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain after the latter was defeated at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War.

The declaration, however, was not recognized by the United States or Spain, as the Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, in consideration for an indemnity for Spanish expenses and assets lost.

The United States recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946 in the Treaty of Manila.Independence Day was observed in the Philippines on the July 4 anniversary of this event until, upon the advice of historians and at the urging of nationalist politicians, President Diosdado Macapagal signed Republic Act No. 4166 into law on August 4, 1964, designating June 12, which had previously been observed as Flag Day, as the country's Independence Day.

The Proclamation Day

The declaration, in the form of a proclamation, in the presence of a huge crowd, was done on June 12, 1898 at the ancestral home of General Emilio Aguinaldo between four and five in the afternoon in Cavite el Viejo (now Kawit), Cavite, some 30 kilometers South of Manila. The event saw the unfurling of the National Flag of the Philippines, made in Hong Kong by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo and Delfina Herboza, and the performance of the Marcha Filipina Magdalo, as the Nation's National Anthem, now known as Lupang Hinirang, which was composed by Julian Felipe and played by the San Francisco de Malabon Marching band.

The Act of the Declaration of Independence was prepared and written by Senior Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista in Spanish, who also read the said declaration. A passage in the Declaration reminds one of another passage in the American Declaration of Independence. The Philippine Declaration was signed by ninety-eight persons, among them an American army officer who witnessed the proclamation. The proclamation of Philippine independence was, however, promulgated on the 1st of August, when many towns had already been organized under the rules laid down by the Dictatorial Government of General Aguinaldo. The final paragraph states that there was a "stranger" (stranger in English translation — etranger in the original Spanish, possibly meaning foreigner) who attended the proceedings, Mr. L. M. Johnson, described as "a citizen of the U.S.A, a Coronel of Artillery".

The June 12 proclamation was later modified by another Proclamation done at Malolos, Bulacan, upon the insistence of Apolinario Mabini, who objected to the Original proclamation, which essentially placed the Philippines under the protection of the United States.

Philippine Independence

Independence: 12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US


The event was led by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo in his mansion on June 12, 1898. The flag of the Philippines, which was made in Hong Kong by Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo and Delfina Herbosa de Natividad was first flown in that event. It is also where the Philippine National Anthem, composed by Julian Felipe, was first played by the San Francisco de Malabon band. The song was played under the name Marcha Filipina Magdalo, later renamed as Marcha Nacional Filipina.

The Official Flag of the Republic of the Philippines.The Philippines celebrated its Independence Day every July 4, the date in 1946 that the United States granted independence to the nation, until 1962, when President Diosdado Macapagal signed the Presidential Proclamation No. 28, changing the official celebration to June 12, the date in 1898 that Emilio Aguinaldo declared the nation's independence from Spain.

On June 12, 1998, the nation celebrated its centennial year of Independence from Spain. The celebrations were held simultaneously nationwide by then President Fidel V. Ramos and Filipino communities worldwide. A commission was established for the said event, the National Centennial Commission headed by former Vice President Salvador Laurel presided all events around the country. One of the major projects of the commission was the Expo Pilipino, a grand showcase of the Philippines' growth as a nation for the last 100 years, located in the Clark Special Economic Zone (formerly Clark Air Base) in Angeles City, Pampanga.

Wednesday, June 10, 2009

Dengue deadlier than H1N1 - DOH

The Department of Health (DOH) said yesterday more people are dying from dengue but this seems to pass unnoticed amid the Influenza A(H1N1) scare.

Dr. Eric Tayag, director of the National Epidemiology Center of the DOH, pointed out in a news briefing at Malacañang that dengue has claimed the lives of 62 people, mostly young children, from January to May 9 while there are no reported fatalities so far from the flu caused by the A(H1N1) virus.

As of yesterday, 20 new cases of the A(H1N1) viral infection had been confirmed by the DOH, raising to 77 the total number of confirmed cases in the country.

Tayag said there is no dengue epidemic yet but there are reports of “clustering” of cases in Caloocan City.

The global case fatality rate for A(H1N1) is 0.55 percent of the 25,288 confirmed cases in 73 reporting countries.

The DOH is closely monitoring 60 barangays in Caoayan, Ilocos Sur; Marilao, Bulacan; Lucena City in Quezon; Taytay, Rizal; Bacolod City and Silay City in Negros Occidental; Cebu City, Danao City, Minglanilla and Lapu-lapu City in Cebu; Tacloban City in Leyte; Valencia City in Bukidnon; in Cagayan de Oro City in Misamis Oriental; Davao City and Davao del Sur; Island City Samal and Davao del Norte and Palomok and Tupi in South Cotabato.

DOH Secretary Francisco Duque III said this year’s cases is 57.9 percent lower compared to the same period in 2008 but this should not lead the public into complacency.

DOH officials in Central Luzon said that dengue fever remains a more serious threat to local folk than A(H1N1).

Dr. Irene Canlas, head of the DOH’s regional epidimiology department, confirmed that since January, five have already died from dengue in the region.

“In terms of mortality, dengue is definitely more dangerous than A(H1N1). We have to be alert because the rainy season has set in,” Canlas said.

Parliamentary system of government

A parliamentary system is a system of government wherein the ministers of the executive branch are drawn from the legislature, and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined. In such a system, the head of government is both de facto chief executive and chief legislator.

Parliamentary systems are characterized by no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches, leading to a different set of checks and balances compared to those found in presidential systems. Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government being the prime minister or premier, and the head of state often being a figurehead, often either a president (elected either popularly or by the parliament) or a hereditary monarch (often in a constitutional monarchy).

The term parliamentary system does not mean that a country is ruled by different parties in coalition with each other. Such multi-party arrangements are usually the product of an electoral system known as proportional representation. Many parliamentary countries, especially those that use "first past the post" voting, have governments composed of one party. However, parliamentary systems in continental Europe do use proportional representation, and tend to produce election results in which no single party has a majority of seats. Proportional representation in a non-parliamentary system does not have this result (Arguelles, 2009).

Parliamentarianism may also be for governance in local governments. An example is the city of Oslo, which has an executive council as a part of the parliamentary system. The council-manager system of municipal government used in some U.S. cities bears many similarities to a parliamentary system.

Students of democracy such as Arend Lijphart divide parliamentary democracies into two different systems, the Westminster and Consensus systems (See Lijphart 1999 for this section).

The Westminster system, usually found in Commonwealth of Nations countries, although they are not universal within nor exclusive to Commonwealth countries. These parliaments tend to have a more adversarial style of debate and the plenary session of parliament is relatively more important than committees. Some parliaments in this model are elected using a plurality voting system (first past the post), such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and India, while others use proportional representation, such as Ireland and New Zealand. The Australian House of Representatives is elected using instant-runoff voting while the Senate is elected using proportional representation through single transferable vote. Even when proportional representation systems are used, the voting systems tend to allow the voter to vote for a named candidate rather than a party list. This model does allow for a greater separation of powers than the Western European model, since the governing party will often not have a majority in the upper house. However, the extent of the separation of powers is nowhere near that of the presidential system of the United States and some other American nations, such as Mexico.

Western European parliamentary model (e.g., Spain, Germany) tend to have a more consensual debating system, and have semi-cyclical debating chambers. Consensus systems are identified by proportional representation, where there is more of a tendency to use party list systems than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber. This model is sometimes called the West German Model since its earliest exemplar in its final form was in the Bundestag of West Germany (which became the Bundestag of Germany upon the absorption of the GDR by the FRG). Switzerland is considered one the purest examples of a consensus system.

There also exists a Hybrid Model, the semi-presidential system, drawing on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems, for example the French Fifth Republic. Much of Eastern Europe has adopted this model since the early 1990s.

Implementations of the parliamentary system can also differ on whether the government needs the explicit approval of the parliament to form, rather than just the absence of its disapproval, and under what conditions (if any) the government has the right to dissolve the parliament, like Jamaica and many others.

Advantages of a parliamentary system

Many believe that it is easier to pass legislation within a parliamentary system. This is because the executive branch is dependent upon the direct or indirect support of the legislative branch and often includes members of the legislature. Thus, this would amount to the executive (as the majority party or coalition of parties in the legislature) possessing more votes in order to pass legislation. In a presidential system, the executive is often chosen independently from the legislature. If the executive and legislature in such a system include members entirely or predominantly from different political parties, then stalemate can occur. Former US President Bill Clinton often faced problems in this regard, since the Republicans controlled Congress for much of his tenure. Accordingly, the executive within a presidential system might not be able to properly implement his or her platform/manifesto. Evidently, an executive in any system (be it parliamentary, presidential or semi-presidential) is chiefly voted into office on the basis of his or her party's platform/manifesto. It could be said then that the will of the people is more easily instituted within a parliamentary system.

In addition to quicker legislative action, Parliamentarianism has attractive features for nations that are ethnically, racially, or ideologically divided. In a unipersonal presidential system, all executive power is concentrated in the president. In a parliamentary system, with a collegial executive, power is more divided. In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement, in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a strong president to a system more structurally similar to a classical parliamentarianism. Iraq similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be tantamount to Shiite domination; Afghanistan's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the Pashtuns desired.

It can also be argued that power is more evenly spread out in the power structure of parliamentarianism. The premier seldom tends to have as high importance as a ruling president, and there tends to be a higher focus on voting for a party and its political ideas than voting for an actual person.

In The English Constitution, Walter Bagehot praised parliamentarianism for producing serious debates, for allowing the change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time. Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural.

There is also a body of scholarship, associated with Juan Linz, Fred Riggs, Bruce Ackerman, and Robert Dahl that claims that parliamentarianism is less prone to authoritarian collapse. These scholars point out that since World War II, two-thirds of Third World countries establishing parliamentary governments successfully made the transition to democracy. By contrast, no Third World presidential system successfully made the transition to democracy without experiencing coups and other constitutional breakdowns. As Bruce Ackerman says of the 30 countries to have experimented with American checks and balances, "All of them, without exception, have succumbed to the nightmare [of breakdown] one time or another, often repeatedly."[citation needed]

A recent World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with lower corruption.

Criticisms of parliamentarianism 

One main criticism of many parliamentary systems is that the head of government is in almost all cases not directly elected. In a presidential system, the president is usually chosen directly by the electorate, or by a set of electors directly chosen by the people, separate from the legislature. However, in a parliamentary system the prime minister is elected by the legislature, often under the strong influence of the party leadership. Thus, a party's candidate for the head of government is usually known before the election, possibly making the election as much about the person as the party behind him or her.

Another major criticism of the parliamentary system lies precisely in its purported advantage: that there is no truly independent body to oppose and veto legislation passed by the parliament, and therefore no substantial check on legislative power. Conversely, because of the lack of inherent separation of powers, some believe that a parliamentary system can place too much power in the executive entity, leading to the feeling that the legislature or judiciary have little scope to administer checks or balances on the executive. However, parliamentary systems are bicameral, with an upper house designed to check the power of the lower (from which the executive comes).

Although it is possible to have a powerful prime minister, as Britain has, or even a dominant party system, as Japan has, parliamentary systems are also sometimes unstable. Critics point to Israel, Italy, Canada, the French Fourth Republic, and Weimar Germany as examples of parliamentary systems where unstable coalitions, demanding minority parties, votes of no confidence, and threats of such votes, make or have made effective governance impossible. Defenders of parliamentarianism say that parliamentary instability is the result of proportional representation, political culture, and highly polarised electorates.

Former Prime Minister Ayad Allawi criticized the parliamentary system of Iraq, saying that because of party-based voting "the vast majority of the electorate based their choices on sectarian and ethnic affiliations, not on genuine political platforms.

Although Walter Bagehot praised parliamentarianism for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused. In some systems, such as the British, a ruling party can schedule elections when it feels that it is likely to do well, and so avoid elections at times of unpopularity. Thus, by wise timing of elections, in a parliamentary system a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system. This problem can be alleviated somewhat by setting fixed dates for parliamentary elections, as is the case in several of Australia's state parliaments. In other systems, such as the Dutch and the Belgian, the ruling party or coalition has some flexibility in determining the election date.

Alexander Hamilton argued for elections at set intervals as a means of insulating the government from the transient passions of the people, and thereby giving reason the advantage over passion in the accountability of the government to the people

Critics of parliamentary systems point out that people with significant popular support in the community are prevented from becoming prime minister if they cannot get elected to parliament since there is no option to "run for prime minister" like one can run for president under a presidential system. Additionally, prime ministers may lose their positions solely because they lose their seats in parliament, even though they may still be popular nationally. Supporters of parliamentarianism can respond by saying that as members of parliament, prime ministers are elected firstly to represent their electoral constituents and if they lose their support then consequently they are no longer entitled to be prime minister. In parliamentary systems, the role of the statesman who represents the country as a whole goes to the separate position of head of state, which is generally non-executive and non-partisan. Promising politicians in parliamentary systems likewise are normally preselected for safe seats - ones that are unlikely to be lost at the next election - which allows them to focus instead on their political career.

Countries with a parliamentary system of government:

Unicameral System

This table shows countries with parliament consisting of a single house.

Country                                                                           Parliament
African                                                            Union Pan African Parliament
Albania                                                            Kuvendi
Bangladesh                                                     Jatiyo Sangshad
Bulgaria                                                           National Assembly
Botswana                                                        Parliament
Burkina Faso                                                 National Assembly
Croatia                                                            Sabor
Denmark                                                        Folketing
Dominica                                                        House of Assembly
Estonia                                                           Riigikogu
Finland                                                           Eduskunta/Riksdag
Ghana                                                             Parliament
Greece                                                           Hellenic Parliament
Hungary                                                        National Assembly
Iceland                                                          Althing
Israel                                                              Knesset
Kuwait                                                          National Assembly of Kuwait
Latvia                                                           Saeima
Lebanon                                                      Assembly of Deputies
Lithuania                                                      Seimas
Luxembourg                                               Chamber of Deputies
Malta                                                         House of Representatives
Mauritius                                                      National Assembly
Moldova                                                          Parliament
Mongolia                                                            State Great Khural
Montenegro                                               Parliament
Nepal                                                           Legislature-Parliament
New Zealand                                          Parliament
Norway*                                                    Stortinget
Palestinian                                                     Authority Parliament
Papua New Guinea                                           National Parliament
Portugal                                                         Assembly of the Republic
Republic of Macedonia                                   Sobranie -Assembly
Saint Kitts and Nevis                                     National Assembly
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines                    House of Assembly
Samoa                                                               Fono
Serbia                                                           National Assembly
Singapore                                                Parliament
Slovakia                                                       National Council
Sri Lanka                                              Parliament
Sweden                                                    Riksdag
Turkey                                           Grand National Assembly
Ukraine                                             Verkhovna Rada
Vanuatu                                                           Parliament
Vietnam                                         National Assembly

The Norwegian Parliament is divided in the Lagting and Odelsting in legislative matters. This separation will be abolished with the next parliament in 2009 due to a constitutional amendment.

Bicameral system

This table shows organisations and countries with parliament consisting of two houses.Organisation or Country

Parliament                             Upper chamber                                 Lower chamber
Australia                            Commonwealth               Parliament Senate House of Representatives
Austria                               Parliament                                       Federal Council National Council
Antigua and Barbuda       Parliament                                       Senate House of Representatives
The Bahamas                        Parliament                                         Senate House of Assembly
Nigeria                             National Assembly                     Senate House of Representatives
Barbados                       House of Assembly                                 Senate House of Assembly
Belize                              National Assembly                           Senate House of Representatives
Belgium Federal                Parliament                                    Senate Chamber of Representatives
Bhutan                            Parliament                                      National Council National Assembly
Canada                                Parliament                                     Senate House of Commons
Czech Republic                  Parliament                                       Senate Chamber of Deputies
Ethiopia FederalParliamentaryAssembly House of Federation House of People's Representatives
European Union        Council of the European                          Union European Parliament
Germanym Federal Legislature/Bundesversammlung (Federal Assembly) Bundesrat (Federal Council) Bundestag (Federal Diet)
Grenada                            Parliament                                          Senate House of Representatives
India    Parliament (Sansad) Rajya Sabha (Council of States) Lok Sabha (House of People)
Ireland                                 Oireachtas                                      Seanad Éireann Dáil Éireann
Iraq                      National Assembly Council of Union                      Council of Representatives
Italy                                       Parliament                     Senate of the Republic Chamber of Deputies
Jamaica                                Parliament                                        Senate House of Representatives
Japan Diet                      House of Councillors                                  House of Representatives
Malaysia                Parliament Dewan Negara (Senate) Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)
Netherlands                            States-General Senate                           House of Representatives
Pakistan                               Parliament                                              Senate National Assembly
Poland                                  Parliament                                                         Senate Sejm
Saint Lucia                            Parliament                                            Senate House of Assembly
Slovenia                                   Parliament                                     National Council National Assembly
South Africa                          Parliament               National Council of Provinces National Assembly
Spain Cortes                        Generales Senate                                   Congress of Deputies
Switzerland                        Federal Assembly                         Council of States National Council
Thailand                                    National Assembly                    Senate House of Representatives
Trinidad and Tobago                Parliament                                       Senate House of Representatives
United Kingdom                            Parliament                            House of Lords House of Commons

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia